In 1227 Pope Gregory IX appointed the first judges delegate as inquisitors for heretical depravity—many, though not all, of whom were Dominican and Franciscan friars. After living a life devoted to God, Francis was canonized as a Saint just two years after his death on July 16, 1228, by his former protector, Pope Gregory IX. A remarkably skillful and learned lawyer, Gregory IX initiated the Nova Compilatio decretalium (New Compilation of Decretals), which was promulgated in numerous copies in 1234. Frederick’s invasion of Sardinia, a papal fief, on behalf of the candidacy of his son Enzio for the Sardinian crown, led to a renewal of the excommunication on March 20, 1239, and caused Gregory to seek supporters in northern Italy. Gregory was a reluctant pontiff- and not just because of his age. This work was the culmination of a long process of systematizing the mass of papal pronouncements that had accumulated since the early Middle Ages, a process that had been under way since the first half of the twelfth century and had come to fruition in the Decretum, compiled by Gratian and published in 1140. I suppose it’s possible that Vox in Rama simply set the stage for a cat-killing trend that would, generations later, result in the Black Death. He ordered the canonist Raymond of Peñafort to compile the Decretals, a code of canon law based both on conciliar decisions and on papal letters, which he promulgated in 1234. Frederick responded by an attack on the excommunication as unjustified and a denunciation of the Roman Curia. Papal inquisitors had authority over everyone except bishops and their officials. Moreover, the struggle between the Guelphs, supporting the papacy, and the Ghibellines, supporting the emperor, was intensifying. Hartmann, Wilfried, and Kenneth Pennington. Gregory IX had been a personal friend and supporter of the future saints Francis and Dominic. Only one bishop published his decree of excommunication against the emperor, and nearly all the princes and bishops remained faithful to the Frederick. During the pontificate of Pope Honorius III (1216–27), Ugo continued to play a leading role. Gregory's Bull Parens scientiarum of 1231, after the University of Paris strike of 1229, resolved differences between the unruly university scholars of Paris and the local authorities. Gregory IX was elevated to the papacy in the papal electionof 1227. The propaganda war that accompanied the renewed hostilities is noted more for vitriolic than for reasoned argumentation. Pope Gregory IX synonyms, Pope Gregory IX pronunciation, Pope Gregory IX translation, English dictionary definition of Pope Gregory IX. He was the ninth man to choose the name Gregory upon his coronation. Pope Gregory IX (UGOLINO, Count of Segni). Pope Gregory IX, born Ugolino di Conti, was pope from March 19, 1227 to August 22, 1241. As cardinal under his uncle, Innocent III, he became, at St. Francis' request, the first cardinal protector of the Franciscans. On March 19, 1227, 80-year-old cardinal Ugolino di Segni became Pope Gregory IX. The rupture broke into the open shortly after Gregory’s election, when Frederick, who had finally launched his crusade, was forced to return to Brindisi because of an outbreak of plague. To his credit, Gregory is considered to have been one of the most energetic popes of his time. The effort to find a settlement between the secular and the spiritual powers of medieval society received a decisive blow in this struggle. Shortly after his creation as a cardinal-deacon by his uncle in 1198, he was involved in peace negotiations with Markwald of Anweiler in southern Italy. After his uncle Innocent III's accession to the papal throne in January 1198, Ugolino was appointed papal chaplain, then archpriest of Saint Peter's Basilica, and finally cardinal-deacon of the Roman church of Sant Eustachio in 1198. A treaty was concluded at San Germano between the pope and the emperor, and on August 28 the two leaders met at Anagni and completed their reconciliation, at least temporarily. A year later he became a papal ambassador to Germany during the succession struggle following the death of Emperor Henry VI. However, his papacy is most remembered for his bitter and often violent power struggle against Emperor Frederick II, whom he considered lax in his duty as a crusader. Gregory IX's policy toward heretics was a severe one. A nephew of Pope Innocent III, he was educated at the University of Paris and came to prominence under Honorius III. Those who opposed Church tradition, in those times, were looked upon as traitors and punished accordingly. Still, it was his quickness to anger and his impatience with opposition that marked the character of his pontificate. Gregory IX, original name Ugo, or Ugolino, Di Segni, (born before 1170—died Aug. 22, 1241, Rome), one of the most vigorous of the 13th-century popes (reigned 1227–41), a canon lawyer, theologian, defender of papal prerogatives, and founder of the papal Inquisition. The papacy as conceived by Gregory IX and the empire as conceived by Frederick II could not exist together in peace. Gregory ordered an attack on the kingdom of Sicily in the emperor's absence, but h Pope Gregory IX (Source: les.tresors.de.lys.free.fr) Gregory lived from 1145 to 1241, AD. These new, heretical beliefs varied. Author of. eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'newworldencyclopedia_org-large-mobile-banner-1','ezslot_3',169,'0','0'])); On the other hand, his standards of person piety were beyond reproach, and his support of the mendicant orders constituted a step toward reforming the luxurious culture of the Catholic Church's upper echelons. Gregory IX, Pope 1227-1241, who founded the papal Inquisition. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Gregory IX believed the problem of heresy needed serious attention and was not content with leaving it to the local bishops. Though Frederick’s return witnessed the defeat of the papal forces, the deep fears aroused by his policies remained unsettled by the Treaty of San Germano (1230). Nevertheless, Frederick embarked for the East, where he conquered Cyprus and negotiated with the Sultan of Egypt for Jerusalem. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership. Despite dwindling support, Frederick was able to conquer Cyprus and successfully negotiated with Sultan Al-Kamil of Egypt for Jerusalem, resulting in his temporary recognition as king of the Holy City. eval(ez_write_tag([[336,280],'newworldencyclopedia_org-medrectangle-4','ezslot_1',162,'0','0'])); Ugolino was born in Anagni around 1145. Art, Music, Literature, Sports and leisure, https://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/p/index.php?title=Gregory_IX&oldid=1005552, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License. Gregory IX, 1143?–1241, pope (1227–41), an Italian named Ugolino di Segni, b. Anagni; successor of Honorius III. creatorOf: Gregory IX, Pope, ca. Gregory continued the policies of his predecessors against heresy in southern France and northern Italy. In April, 1229, he gave new statutes to the Carmelites. Pierpont Morgan Library. He was friend to both St. Dominic and St. Francis of Assisi, founders of the first mendicant orders. New World Encyclopedia writers and editors rewrote and completed the Wikipedia article He financially and otherwise assisted the Cistercians and the Teutonic Order. A man of unquestioned personal piety, he was a supporter of the new monastic orders led by Saint Francis and Saint Dominic. Claiming provocation by Frederick’s vicar in the Kingdom of Sicily, Gregory raised an army and launched an attack on the kingdom. Hereupon the cardinals unanimously elected Ugolino on 19 March, 1227, and he reluctantly accepted the high honour, taking the name of Gregory IX. Pope Gregory IX (Latin: Gregorius IX; born Ugolino di Conti; c. 1145 or before 1170 – 22 August 1241) was Bishop of Rome, and as such, head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 19 March 1227 to his death. Popular devotion to Dominic increased after his death, and in 1234, only 13 years later, he was canonized by Pope Gregory IX, formerly Cardinal Ugolino, who earlier had been his patron. The Black Death came in 1347. Pope Gregory IX was a supporter of mendicant orders, in which he saw an excellent tool to counter the craving for luxury inherent in many clergymen. He received his education at the Universities of Paris and Bologna. Among the ten cardinals he appointed were several members of these new orders, who rejected personal wealth and brought a reforming spirit to the College of Cardinals. Meanwhile, a violent dispute with Rainald of Urslingen, the imperial governor of Spoleto, had caused Gregory to further suspect the emperor. He also entered into negotiations with the Greek Orthodox Church that resulted in a series of conferences at Nicaea in January 1234 but proved abortive. For Gregory, the mendicant orders constituted an excellent means of counteracting the love of luxury that had affected many clerics, and were also a powerful weapon for suppressing heresy among the masses. 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